Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Realytics
Google Analytics
Spoteffects
Optimizely

Targeted advertising cookies

DoubleClick
Mediarithmics

The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inra.fr or by post at:

INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal ministère de l'Agriculture (DGER) CNIV Bordeaux Sciences Agro Université Champagne-Ardenne IFV ISVV

Home page

Lecomte P, Darrieutort G, Liminana J-M, Comont G, Muruamendiaraz A, Legorburu F-J, Choueiri E, Jreijiri F, El Amil R, Fermaud M (2012)

New insights into Esca of grapevine: the development of foliar symptoms and their association with xylem discoloration. Plant Disease, 96, 924-934.

Abstract

A new study on the development of foliar symptoms of esca was carried out from 2004 to 2006 in five mature vineyards in Aquitaine, France. Symptoms were monitored for severity and changes over time. Initial foliar symptoms were characterized by the presence of drying zones or discolorations (reddening or yellowing), which are symptoms that have also been attributed to Black Dead Arm (BDA). Then, the less-severely affected leaves persisted throughout the summer and developed into typical “tiger-stripe” symptoms of esca. The most severely symptomatic leaves fell soon after symptoms appeared. Severely diseased vines showed typical apoplectic or acute forms of esca that did not differ from the severe BDA forms. The appearance of leaf-symptomatic vines increased uniformly over time, reaching a maximum incidence by the end of July.

A second survey in 41 European and Lebanese vineyards showed that longitudinal discolorations were visible under the bark of 95% of the vines showing foliar esca symptoms. These wood symptoms, also previously attributed to BDA, appeared as xylem orange-brown stripes. Thus, foliar symptoms of esca showed transitory phases which overlapped with some BDA descriptions. Most of these symptoms, in the west-palearctic regions that were investigated, were commonly associated with the presence of one or several xylem discolorations.

---> lire l'article